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In regard to behavioral regulation, the repeated finding that aggressiveness is linked to lower peer status is consistent with the notion that the ability to modulate anger contributes to peer sociometric status. In fact, children who can regulate their arousal engage in fewer aggressive interactions with peers than do other children; this finding may hold especially for sociable children. Somewhat more direct evidence also has been obtained; for example, popular boys (but not girls are less likely to vent emotion when angered than are their less popular peers. Further, children who tend to display appropriate expressions of emotion engage in more complex (e.g., cooperative or associative play. Children low in social status often are low in cognitive and behavioral self-control and are impulsive; they also tend to display excessive motor behavior. Moreover, elementary children who are emotionally immature–who express their fear and sadness rather than controlling it–are relatively likely to remain rejected over time. Thus, although some rejected boys appear to be average in self-control but high in withdrawn behavior, behavioral regulation usually has been related social status, especially peer rejection.
Anger and Aggression - An Essay on Emotion | J
Emotion-relevant regulation is hypothesized to involve a variety of processes and mechanisms, including the following: (a) the regulation of internal emotional and physiological states (i.e., emotion regulation–the process of initiating, maintaining, modulating, or changing the occurrence, intensity, or duration of internal feeling states and emotion-related physiological processes); and (b) the regulation of emotionally-driven behavior (i.e., the process of initiating, maintaining, inhibiting, modulating, or changing the occurrence, form, and duration of behavioral concomitants of emotion). Both of these types of regulation are expected to be associated with peer status. Children who can regulate their emotional reactions and moods by means of attentional and cognitive processes such as shifting and focusing attention as needed are expected to be relatively emotionally regulated, positive, and appropriate in their emotional reactions. Moreover, children who can inhibit the inappropriate expression of emotion, but are not so highly inhibited that they have difficulty dealing with new contexts and people, are expected to exhibit constructive behavior and to be liked by peers. Various types of regulation tend to be intercorrelated.